RED LIGHT CAMERAS
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Legislation/Speed Cameras Coming?
Contact/Email Address
Fake/Snitch Tickets/Nominations
No Ticket Yet?  Be Prepared
Journalists/Bloggers/Webmasters
FAQ Frequently Asked Questions
Library of Transcripts, Briefs, Decisions
Alternatives to Cameras
Boycott !


If you haven't already done so, please read the What's Hot box on the
Home page

Site Index / Search

On this page:

1.  Site Map / Outline


2.  Alphabetical Index by Subject
(Including 'Cheat Sheet')

3.  Still Can't Find It?  How to Search


1.  Site Map / Outline

(Scroll down for Alphabetical Index by Subject - Including 'Cheat Sheet')

Please note that in 2008, highwayrobbery.net launched a new condensed version of the Home/Defects page.  If you are having trouble finding something that you saw before, it might be something that is only on the original/expanded version of the page - which is still available, and fully maintained.


I. & II.  
Home / Defects page  (a.k.a. "Home page") (there are TWO versions - Condensed, and Expanded)

            A.   Introduction

            B.   What's Really New or Hot

            C.   Defects

                        1.    Driver's Face Photo
                        2.    Yellow Light Too Short for the Speed on the Street
                        3.    (Merged into Defect # 2)
                        4.    Warning Signs Too Small, Absent
                        5.    ACS/Xerox Cameras
                        6.    City Didn't Issue Warning Tickets for 30 Days;  Other Required Warnings
                        7.    Light Bulbs Take a While to Come On
                        8.    Failure of City to Mail Ticket on Time and/or With Proper
                               Proof of Service and/or Incomplete Ticket
                        9.    Churning - Quotas, Signals that Change Too Quickly, Enforcement on Right or Left Turns,
                               Siting of Cameras at Confusing Intersections
                        10.  Foundation, Constitutionality, Hearsay, Confrontation, Probable Cause

             D.  Disclaimers

III.   Camera Towns page

                           1.     East LA (closed)
                           2.     West Hollywood (WeHo)
                           3.     Culver City
                           4.     Costa Mesa (closed)
                           5.     Fremont
                           6.     Beverly Hills
                           7.     San Diego (closed)
                           8.     City of  Los Angeles (closed)
                           9.     El Cajon (closed)
                           10.   Vista (closed)
                           11.   Encinitas
                           12.   South Gate (closed)
                           13.   El Monte (closed)
                           14.   Long Beach (closed)
                           15.   Hawthorne
                           16.   Inglewood (closed)
                           17.   Bakersfield
                           18.   Montclair (closed)
                           19.   Indian Wells (closed)
                           20.   Del Mar
                           21.   Santa Clarita (closed)
                           22.   San Juan Capistrano (closed)
                           23.   Rancho Cucamonga (closed)
                           24.   Garden Grove
                           25.   Stockton (closed)
                           26.   Fresno (closed)
                           27.   Cerritos (closed)
                           28.   Mesa, Arizona
                           29.   Upland (closed)
                           30.   Oxnard (closed?)
                           31.   Pasadena (closed)
                           32.   Fullerton (closed)
                           33.   San Jose (closed - speed cameras only)
                           34.   Santa Ana (closed)
                           35.   San Francisco
                           36.   Fairfield (closed)
                           37.   City and County of Sacramento
                           38.   Cupertino (closed)
                           39.   Whittier (closed)
                           40.   Glendora, Hacienda Heights, Rowland Heights, Westwood (closed)
                           41.   Montebello
                           42.   Ventura
                           43.   Berkeley (closed)
                           44.   Compton (closed)
                           45.   Emeryville (closed)
                           46.   Gardena (closed)
                           47.   Escondido (closed)
                           48.   Lynwood (closed)
                           49.   Marysville (closed)
                           50.   Maywood (closed)
                           51.   Modesto (closed)
                           52.   Oceanside (closed)
                           53.   Roseville (closed)
                           54.   San Mateo
                           55.   Solana Beach
                           56.   Davis (closed)
                           57.   Poway (closed)
                           58.   Union City (closed)
                           59.   San Leandro
                           60.   Murrieta (closed)
                           61.   Rocklin (closed)
                           62.   Laguna Woods (closed)
                           63.   Loma Linda (closed)
                           64.   Los Alamitos
                           65.   San Bernardino (closed)
                           66.   Capitola
                           67.   Santa Fe Springs (closed)
                           68.   Yuba City (closed)
                           69.   Millbrae
                           70.   Newark
                           71.   Baldwin Park (closed)
                           72.   Cathedral City
                           73.   Santa Maria (closed)
                           74.   MRCA - Mountains Recreation and Conversation Authority (stop sign cameras)
                           75.   Metro/MTA busway and light rail
                           76.   Lancaster (closed)
                           77.   Redwood City (closed)
                           78.   Walnut (closed)
                           79.   Citrus Heights
                           80.   Riverside (closed)
                           81.   Moreno Valley (closed)
                           82.   Belmont (closed)
                           83.   Highland (closed)
                           84.   San Carlos (closed)
                           85.   Glendale (closed)
                           86.   Napa (closed)
                           87.   Redding
                           88.   Daly City
                           89.   Yucaipa (closed)
                           90.   Grand Terrace (closed)
                           91.   South San Francisco (closed)
                           92.   Menlo Park
                           93.   Redlands (closed)
                           94.   Victorville (closed)
                           95.   Covina
                           96.   Bell Gardens (closed)
                           97.   Burlingame (closed)
                           98.   Corona (closed)
                           99.   Elk Grove
                           100. Commerce
                           101. Hayward (closed)
                           102. Oakland (closed)
                           103. San Rafael (closed)
                           104. Paramount (closed)
                           105. Irvine (closed)
                           106. Rancho Cordova
                           107. Check the Cameras in Your Town

IV.  (Fighting) Your Ticket page (aka, the Your Ticket page)

              1.   Police Going Too Far? (Snitch Tickets)

              2.   It's Not Me !
                                         
              3.   Handling Your Ticket

                             Tickets "In Collection"
                             Extensions
                             Getting Records/Discovery
                             Second Offender traffic school, reduced fines, payment plans
                             Challenging the Judge & Change of Venue
                             Preparation for trial
                             Measuring the yellow
                             Are warning signs big enough?
                             Trial by Declaration (TBD), Trial de Novo (TDN)                                                    
                             Trial examples:  Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions
                             Appeals
                             TBD examples (in blue "wallpaper" area) 

V.   Action page (aka, the Action/Legis page)

              1.     Active Legislation

              1.5    Info about Lobbying (the Big Pink Box)

              2.     An Initiative

              3.     You Don't Have to Shop There  (Boycott!)

              4.     More Things You Can Do
                           
              4.5    Info for Journalists / Industry PR

                            Industry PR Photos

              5.     No $ Donations

              6.     Legislation, Older

              7.     The Guru Club

              8.     Ticket Questionnaire and Email Address (in blue "wallpaper" area)

                            Photo Grading

VI.    Links / Reference / FAQ page  (a.k.a. "Links page")

              1.   Red Light Camera Info

              2.   Contacting Government Officials

              3.   General Reference Materials

              4.   FAQ (Frequently-Asked Questions)

              5.   Letters / Editorials / News / Class Actions

              6.   Info from Other States

              7.   Humor

              8.   Speeding Tickets

              9.   Moving Violations Cited (Illegally) Under Local Ordinances Not CVC

              10.  Parking Tickets

VII.   Site Index  (You are there!)




2.  Alphabetical/Numerical Index by Subject
(Including 'Cheat Sheet')


Cheat Sheet:  Copy and print the portion between dashed lines as your 'Cheat Sheet.'

-----------------------------

0.1 second Late Time (see Defects # 5 and # 7 on the Home page)
2TS (Second Offender traffic school) (see the Your Ticket page, and the Editorial on the Links page)
3.0 sec. min. yellow on a turn or in a 25 mph zone, 3.2 in a 30, 3.6 in a 35, 3.9 in a 40, 4.3 in a 45
4.104 (Cal. Rule of Court re: traffic school.  Formerly number 851 ) (see Traffic
     School Editorial, on the Links page)
4.150 - 4.155 (Cal. Rules of Court re:  Change of Venue ) (see Change of Venue, in this Index)
4.210 (Cal. Rule of Court re: Trial by Declaration. Formerly number 828 ) (see Trial by
     Declaration, in this Index)
6th Amendment  (Right to a speedy trial) (see FAQ # 28 on the Links page)
6th Amendment  (Right to confront witnesses)  (See Defect # 10 - D on the Home page)
14th Amendment (Equal protection)  (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
15-day mailing requirement (see FAQ # 9 on the Links page and Defect # 8 on the Home page)
28, Sec. 28 of Art. 1 of the Cal. Constitution, sometimes mistakenly called "Prop. 28." (see Truth in Evidence)
45-day speedy trial (see FAQ # 28 on the Links page)
85th Percentile Speed (see the Expanded Version of Defect # 2)
170.1, 170.3, or 170.6, CCP 170.1, etc. (Cal. Code of Civil Procedures re:  Challenging a Judge)
     (Often heard spoken in court: "170.6") (see links on the Your Ticket page)
210, CVC 210 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. requires a "clear" face photo) (see Defect # 1 on the Home page)
529, AB 529 (Assembly Bill of 2011 - allows cities to lower speed limits, resulting in shorter yellows) (see
     the Action page)
949, SB 949 (Senate Bill of 2010 - stops ticketing under local Muni Code.) (see the Action page)
986, SB 986 (Senate Bill of 2016 - if passed and okayed by Gov. Brown, will cut rolling right fines by half)  (see
     the Action page)
1022, AB 1022 (Assembly Bill of 2003 - supposed "camera reform") (see Older Legislation, on the Action page)
1303, SB 1303 (Senate Bill of 2012 - supposed "camera reform") (see the Action page)
1385, PC 1385 (Penal Code Sec. allows the cop or prosecutor to ask the court to
     dismiss a case.  Often heard spoken in court as: "Dismiss, 1385.")  (See FAQ # 41)
2128, AB 2128 (Assembly Bill of 2012 - would have lengthened yellows & reduced file for rolling rights) (see
     the Action page)
2192, AB 2192 (Assembly Bill of 2012 - would have facilitated ticketing of cars with "protected plates") (see
     the Action page)
21453(a) and 21453(c) (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. 21453(a) prohibits running straight through a red or rolling
     a right turn on a circular red light, and 21453(c) prohibits going through on a red arrow and is mostly
     used for left turns.  See also FAQ # 8 on the Links page.)
21453(b) (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. 21453(b)) (see Set # 2 of City of LA Docs, and AB 2128, in this Index)
21453(a) vs. 21453(b) - See FAQ # 15, on the Links page.)
21455.5, CVC 21455.5 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. sets out foundational requirements for cameras) (see
     Defect # 10 on the Home page)
21455.6, CVC 21455.6 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. requires a public hearing before commencing camera
     program; excludes use of photo radar) (see Defect # 6 on the Home page)
21455.7, CVC 21455.7 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. provides minimum yellow light durations) (see the Expanded
     Version of Defect # 2)  Minimums are 3.0 in a 25 or for any turn, 3.2 in a 30, 3.6 in a 35, 3.9 in a 40, 4.3 in a 45.
21462, CVC 21462 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. allows a Necessity Defense) (see FAQ # 25 on the Links page)
21710, CVC 21710 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. for "Coasting" - a non-point violation) (see Coasting, in this Index)
22526, CVC 22526 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. for gridlock)  (see Gridlock, in this Index)
40502, CVC 40502 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. allows defendant to transfer the case to the County Seat (see
     Change of Venue, in this Index)
40518, CVC 40518 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. requires mailing of camera ticket within 15 days) (see
     FAQ # 9 on the Links page and Defect # 8 on the Home page)
40519, CVC 40519 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. allows pleading not guilty by mail ) (see FAQ # 28 on the Links page)
40802, CVC 40802 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. - prohibits speed traps (see Speeding Tickets, on the Links page)
40902
, CVC 40902 (Cal. Veh. Code Sec. allows Trial by Declaration and Trial de Novo) (see
     the Your Ticket page)

The numbered 'Defects' on the Home page:

1.   Driver's Face Photo
2.   Yellow Light Too Short for the Speed on the Street
3.   (Merged into # 2)
4.   Warning Signs Too Small, Absent
5.   ACS/Xerox/Conduent Cameras
6.   City Didn't Issue Warning Tickets for 30 Days;  Other Required Warnings
7.   Light Bulbs Take a While to Come On
8.   Failure of City to Mail Ticket on Time and/or with Proper Proof of Service and/or Incomplete Ticket
9.   Churning - Quotas, Signals that Change too Quickly, Enforcement on Left or Right Turns, Putting  Cameras
      at Confusing Intersections
10. Hearsay, Lack of Foundation, Constitutionality, Lack of Probable Cause

--------------------------------

Please note that on Aug. 17, 2008, highwayrobbery.net launched a new condensed version of the Home/Defects
page.  If you are having trouble finding something that you saw before, it might be something that is only on
the original/expanded version of the page - which is still available, and fully maintained.

--------------------------------

AAA-affiliated auto clubs (see AB 1022 section on the Action page, the News section on
     the Links page, and Defining Approach Speed)
AB 1022 (see the Action page)
ACS/Xerox/Conduent Cameras (see Defect # 5 on the Home page, and East LA section on the Camera Towns page)
ACS Corporation (see News section on the Links page, and Camera Companies, in this Index)
ATS (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Accident Avoidance Systems (see FAQ # 42 on the Links page)
Accident Photos, taken by red light cameras (see Industry PR page)
Accident Records, getting (see SWITRS, in this Index)
Accident Statistics, studies (see FAQ # 6 and FAQ # 19, on the Links page)
Action page
Addresses for Cities (see the Links page)
Affiliated Computer Services (see ACS, in this Index)
Allen, People vs. John (see San Diego Documents Set # 3)
Alternatives to Cameras (see FAQ # 6 on the Links page)
Amber light (see Yellow Light, in this Index)
Ambulance Behind You (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
American Traffic Solutions, or ATS  (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Amnesty (see the big box near the top of the Handling Your Ticket section on the Your Ticket page)
Android apps, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Annette B., People vs., court decision (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page, and Appeal Decisions, in this Index)
Appeal, Motion to Augment the Record - example (see the Franco case
    in the Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions )
Appeals (see Settled Statement and the Your Ticket page)
Appeal Decisions (see Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions )
Approach, definition (Industry terminology meaning camera enforcement against traffic moving
     in a single compass direction at an intersection - an intersection could have up to four
    Approaches operating - although most just have one or two)
Approach Speed, defining (see the Expanded Version of Defect # 2 
     and Defining Approach Speed)
Apps, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Arizona Tickets (see Mesa in this Index, and the Speeding Ticket section on the Links page)
Arm-twisting (see the "It's Not Me! " section of the Your Ticket page)
Armey, Dick, Congressman, retired (see the Links page)
Arraignment, definition (see FAQ # 23, on the Links page)
Assigned for All Purposes (see Challenging the Judge)
Astroturf Lobbying (see Industry PR page)
Atlantic / Whittier Intersection (see East LA section on the Camera Towns page)
Attorneys, referral to (see Disclaimers section on the Home page)
Augment the Record (on appeal), Motion to - example (see the Franco case
    in the Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions )
Ausen, People vs. (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
Auto Clubs (see NMA and AAA, in this Index)
Automated (phone or Internet) System at Clerk's Office (see FAQ # 31 on the Links page)

Backing Up, after crossing limit line (see FAQ # 30 on the Links page)
Baltimore, Maryland, City of (see the Links page)
Beltran, P. vs. (see Change of Venue, in this Index)
Best Evidence Rule (see the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Bills, current and past legislation (see the Action page)
Blank Out sign (see Set # 6 on the Metro Docs page and Sign Requirements, in this Index)
Blow-up, using a blow-up to compare before-and-after brightness (see the Expanded
    version of Defect # 7)
Bluffing by Police (see "Police Going Too Far..." on the Your Ticket page)
Bohl, appellate court decision (see link in Defect # 10 on the Home page)
Borzakian, People vs., court decision (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page, and Appeal Decisions, in this Index)
Boycott ! (see You Don't Have to Shop There..., on the Action/Legis page)
Brake Failure (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
Brake Lights Look On? (see FAQ # 4 on the Links page)
Braking Distance (see Stopping Distance, in this Index)
Bribery (see FAQ # 34 on the Links page)
Briefs - samples re:  red light cameras (see Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions and
    "Briefs" in the FYT Addendum)
Brown, David W. (see Fight Your Ticket, in this Index)
Bumper, position in photos (see FAQ # 32 on the Links page)
Business Vehicle (see Company Car, in this Index)
Busway (see Metro, in this Index)
Buttons, Don't Shop In... (see the Action page)

CHP Stopping Distances Chart (see Stopping Distances, in this Index)
CHP- ticket issued by (see Disambiguation, near the bottom of the Camera Towns page)
COV- Change of Venue (see Change of Venue, in this Index)
CPRA - Cal. Public Records Act (see the Getting Records page and
    the Cal. Journalist's Legal Notebook on the Links page)
CTCDC - Cal. Traffic Control Devices Committee (see the Expanded Version of Defect # 2,
    and Defining Approach Speed)
CalAware Guide to Journalism Law in California (see the Reference section on the Links page)
California Codes, looking up (see the Reference section on the Links page)
California Traffic Control Devices Committee (see CTCDC, in this Index)
Californians Aware (see CalAware, in this Index)
CalTrans (see the Expanded Version of Defect # 2, and the Links page)
Camera Companies, who are they? (see FAQ # 34 on the Links page)
Camera Companies' PR (see the Industry PR page)
Camera Locations, the most common sites (see FAQ # 35 on the Links page)
Cameras, alternatives to (see FAQ # 6 on the Links page)
Cameras Page (see the Camera Towns page in this Index)
Camera Towns page
Candor from Officials - about the cameras' effect upon safety (on the Industry PR page)
Case Law (published appeal decisions) (see Appeal Decisions, in this Index)
Cerritos, California, City of (see the Camera Towns page) (program closed in 2016)
Certificate of Mailing, required (see Defect # 8 on the Home page)
Certified copy, Certified letter, Certificate of Mailing (see the Getting Records page)
Challenges (see the Your Ticket page and Challenging the Judge)
Change of Venue - to the County Seat (see Challenging the Judge)
CHP (see the beginning of the "C" entries in this Index)
Churning (see Defect # 9 on the Home page)
Citation, sample (see WeHo Sample Citation)
Civil Assessments (see Collections, in this Index)
Class Action Suits (see the Class Actions page)
Coasting - CVC 21710 - a non-point charge (see the Alternatives box, in the Handling Your
    Ticket section of the Your Ticket page)
Cold plates (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
Collections, collection agencies (see Defect # 8 on the Home page, the big box near the top
    of the Handling Your Ticket section on the Your Ticket page, and FAQ # 39)
Collision avoidance systems (see FAQ # 42)
Comments (see the Links page)
Commercial Drivers License (see the Alternatives box, in the Handling Your
    Ticket section of the Your Ticket page)
Community Service (see FAQ # 3 on the Links page)
Companies (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Company car - ticket issued to company name (contact me)
Conduent Inc. (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Confidential License Plates (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
Confrontation (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page)
Constitutionality (see Defect # 10 on the Home page)
Contacting editor/webmaster of this Site (see bottom of the Action page)
Contingency contracts (see Subsection B of Defect # 10 on the Home page)
Contract terms - between city and camera vendor (see FAQs # 16, 17 and 18 on
    the Links page, and the Fake Ticket section on the Your Ticket page)
Contributions, monetary (see Donations, in this Index)
Contributions, information (see Information Wanted, in this Index)
Copies, of documents or evidence, poor quality  (see Best Evidence, in this Index)
Copy photos from the camera company's website, How to (see FAQ # 43 on the Links page)
Corporate car (see Company Car, in this Index)
Cost:  What is the montly cost or rent for a camera system? (see FAQ # 17, on the Links page)
Cost Neutral contracts (see Subsection B. of Defect # 10 on the Home page)
Costa Mesa, California, City of (see Fischetti, in this Index; also see the Camera Towns page)
County ordinance (not CVC) used to issue moving violation tickets (see Section 9 on the Links
     page and SB 949 on the Action page)
County seat, transfering ticket to (see Change of Venue, in this Index)
Court appearance, definition (see FAQ # 23 on the Links page)
Courtesy Notice (as of 2013 has two meanings - see the "Police Going Too Far..." section of the Your Ticket page)
Crash photos (see Accident Photos, in this Index)
Credit rating/report - (see "Will Your Credit Rating Be Dinged?" in Set # 2 on the LA County Docs page)
Creepy phone calls (see "Police Going Too Far..." on the Your Ticket page)
Culver City, 2000 tickets refunded rumor (see Culver City Documents page)

DC - District of Columbia (see Washington DC, in this Index)
DOT guidelines (see Guidelines, federal, in this Index)
Decisions (see the Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions)
Declaration, Trial by (see Trial by Declaration, in this Index)
Delaware cameras (see the Links page)
Delinquent tickets (see the big box near the top of the Handling Your Ticket section on the Your Ticket page)
Demerit points for out-of-state drivers (see FAQ # 39, on the Links page)
Demurrer (see Defect # 8 - A on the Home page)
Disclaimer (see the Home page)
Discovery (see the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Dismissal of old tickets, individual or mass (see FAQ # 26 on the Links page)
Dismissal of a current ticket (see FAQ # 41 on the Links page)
Disqualifying the judge (see Challenges, in this Index)
Distracting activities (see SB 1800, in this Index)
Documents, for a particular city (see that city's section on the Camera Towns page)
Documents, getting (see the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Donations (see the Action page)
Driver, you don't have to identify (see Defect # 1 on the Home page, and
    the It's Not Me! section on the Your Ticket page)
Driver's photo (see Defect # 1)
Duration (see Late Time, in this Index)

East LA, California, unincorporated area within Los Angeles County (see
    two places on the Camera Towns page)
Editor, contacting (see Contacting Webmaster, in this Index)
Editorials (see the Links page)
Email address for website (see bottom of the Action page)
Emergency, or emergency vehicle behind you (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
Encroachment Permits (see the CalTrans section, on the Links page)
Engineering countermeasures (see Alternatives, in this Index)
Enhancement of red light, RedFlex patent for (see Defect # 10-D, on the Home page)
Equal protection (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
Error, inadvertent, by the police (see Truth in Evidence, in this Index)
Evidence, exclusion of  (see Truth in Evidence, in this Index)
Evidence, hearsay (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page, and the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Evidence, poor-quality copies of  (see Best Evidence, in this Index)
Exchange of violation info between states (see FAQ # 39)
Extensions (see the Your Ticket page, and FAQ # 31 on the Links page)

FAQ (see the Links page)
FHWA guidelines (see Guidelines, federal, in this Index)
FOIA (see CPRA, in this Index)
FYT, FYT Addenda (see Fight Your Ticket, in this Index)
Fake tickets (see the "Police Going Too Far..." section of  the Your Ticket page)
Farradyne (see PB Farradyne, in this Index)
Favoritism (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
Federal guidelines (see Guidelines, in this Index)
Fight Your Ticket (the book), FYT Addenda (see the review of FYT in Sec. 1 of the Links page)
Fight Your Ticket, JP's (a former website) (see Speeding Ticket section on the Links page)
Filament Defect (see Lamps, in this Index)
Financials, Culver City (see the Culver City Documents page)
Fines, size and distribution of (see FAQs # 15 and 16, on the Links page)
Fines, reduced (see the Your Ticket page)
Finley, Karen, former CEO of RedFlex (see FAQ # 34 on the Links page)
Fire engine or ambulance behind you (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
Fischetti, People vs., appellate court decision (see Defect # 6 and Defect # 10 on the Home page)
Flashed, some cars not getting flashed at right turn (see FAQ # 27 on the Links page)
Fleet vehicle (see Company Car, in this Index)
FOIA (see CPRA, in this Index)
Foundation (see Defect # 10, and Aug. 24, 2004 entry in the Hawthorne section on
    the Camera Towns page)
FYT, FYT Addenda (see Fight Your Ticket, in this Index)

GC Services (see Collections, in this Index)
Garmin GPS, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Gatso, the latest entry into the California camera biz (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Gatto Trap (see AB 529 of 2011, on the Action page)
Gatto Yellow (see AB 529 of 2011, on the Action page)
Getting government records (see the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Goldsmith, People vs., court decision (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page, and Appeal Decisions, in this Index)
Goulet (see Speed Trap defense, in this Index)
GPS-based systems, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Grand Jury reports (see the Citrus Heights, Daly City, Fremont, Garden Grove, Marysville, Menlo Park, Millbrae,
     Napa, Oxnard, San Mateo, San Rafael, Santa Ana and Ventura Docs pages)
Green light, too short (see Churning, in this Index)
Gridlock ticket, by mail (see the West Hollywood Docs page)
Guide to Journalism Law in California, The CalAware (see the Reference section on the Links page)
Guidelines, Uniform, City's (see Uniform Guidelines, in this Index)
Guidelines, federal, for warning signs (see Defect # 4 on the Home page)
Guidelines, federal, for camera site selection (see Defect # 9 on the Home page)
Gunfire (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)

Halo crash avoidance system, by RedFlex - do a search for "halo" using Method 1, below.
Hearsay (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page, and the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Helping (see Help and Info Needed section on the Action page)
Highway Safety Group website (see the Links page)
History of red light cameras (see Highway Safety Group in Sec. 1 of the Links page, and FAQ # 15)
Hollywood Bowl (see MRCA in this Index)
Home / Defects page
Humor (see Section 7 on the Links page)
Humor Item du Jour (see the Action page)

Identifying the driver - you don't have to (see Defect # 1 on the Home page, and the
    It's Not Me! section on the Your Ticket page)
Ignoring a ticket in LA County - yes you can!  (see Set # 2 on the LA County Docs page)
Image enhancement of red light, RedFlex patent for (see Defect # 10-D, on the Home page)
Inadvertent error by the police (see Truth in Evidence, in this Index)
Incomplete ticket (see Defect # 8 on the Home page)
Industry PR - and Ours (see the Industry PR page)
Information wanted (see the Action page, and the East LA section on the Camera Towns page)
Information about your ticket, questionnaire for supplying (see the Action page)
Initiative (see the Action page)
Interstate exchange of violation info (see FAQ # 39)
Introduction (see the Home page)
Ipod apps, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Is it you in the picture? (see the Your Ticket page)
It's Not Me!  (see the Your Ticket page)

John Allen, People vs. (see Allen, in this Index)
Join / Action page (see the Action page)
Journalists (see the Help and Info Needed/Journalists section on the Action page)
Judge's opinion of cameras (see the Links page)

Khaled, People vs., court decision (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page, and Appeal Decisions, in this Index)
Kuehl, Sheila, Los Angeles County Supervisor and Former State
     Senator (see SB 1300 in the Legislation section on the Action page)

LA County (see the Camera Towns page)
Labor Code violations by camera companies (see Prevailing Wage, in this Index)
Lamps, warm up time (see Defect # 7 on the Home page)
Late Time, defined, and how to read (see purple box in Defect # 7 on the Home page)
Law (see the Home page)
Laws, codes, etc., researching (see the Links page)
Lawsuits (see Class Action suits, in this Index)
Lawyers, referral to (see the Disclaimers section on the Home page)
Lease:  What is the montly cost to lease a camera system? (see FAQ # 17, on the Links page)
LEDs, warm up time (see Lamps, in this Index)
Left turns (see Churning, in this Index, and Sacramento Left Yellow Brief)
Legislation, new, hot (see the Action page)
Legislation, existing (see FindLaw on the Links page)
Legislator, finding (see the Action page)
Letters (see the Links page)
Library (see the Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions)
License plate covers, louvers or sprays (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
License plates, confidential, un-listed, or protected (See FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
License points to out-of-state drivers (see FAQ # 39, on the Links page)
Light bulbs, warm up time (see Lamps, in this Index)
Limit line, backing up after crossing (see FAQ # 30 on the Links page)
Limousine (see Company Car, in this Index)
Linking (see the Help and Info Needed section on the Action page)
Links / Ref / FAQ page
Lobbying by Industry (see the Industry PR page)
Local ordinance (not CVC) used to issue moving violation tickets (see Section 9 on the Links page and SB 949 on
     the Action page)
Locations, most common camera locations (see FAQ # 35 on the Links page)
Locations, inappropriate (see Defect # 9 on the Home page, and FAQ # 6 on the Links page)
Lockheed (see Camera Companies, in this Index)

MRCA - Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority (see the Camera Towns page)
MTA (see Metro, in this Index)
Magellan GPS, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Manufacturers (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Maradudin letter (see Expanded version of Defect # 2)
Marking, of pavement, effect of (see Alternatives, in this Index)
Maryland cameras (see the Links page)
Map, Culver City camera locations (see the Culver City Documents page)
Mathews, Judge Keith E.  (see the News section of the Links page)
Measuring length of yellow (see Yellow, in this Index)
Medical emergency (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
Melendez-Diaz - hearsay evidence (see Defect # 10 - D on the Home page, and
     the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Mesa, Arizona, City of (see the Expanded Version of Defect # 2 and
     City of Mesa, Arizona, Documents)
Metro - Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation
     Authority (see the Metro section on the Camera Towns page)
Mobile photo enforcement (see MRCA in this Index)
Motion to dismiss, by cop at trial (see 1385, above, in this Index)
Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority (see MRCA in this Index)
Moving case to County Seat (see Change of Venue, in this Index)
Moving violation ticket issued under local ordinance not CVC (see Section 9 on the Links page and SB 949 on
     the Action page)
Multiple tickets in a short period of time (see FAQ # 40, on the Links page)
Municipal ordinance (not CVC) used to issue moving violation tickets (see Section 9 on the Links page and SB 949 on
     the Action page)

NCHRP 2012 report recommending longer yellows nationwide (see the Expanded Version of Defect # 2)
NCSR - National Coalition for Safer Roads (see ATS, in this index)
NMA - National Motorists Association (see the Links page)
Navigation systems, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Necessity Defense (see FAQ # 25, on the Links page)
Nestor (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
No-point violation (see Coasting, in this Index)
No record of citation on court's automated (phone or Internet) system (see FAQ # 31 on the
     Links page)
Nomination (see Fake Ticket, in this Index)
Non-California drivers (see FAQ # 39, on the Links page)
Notice of Nonliability (a fake ticket - see the "Police Going Too Far..." section of the Your Ticket page)
Notice of Traffic Violation (see the "Police Going Too Far..." section of the Your Ticket page)
Notice of commencement of red light camera program, requirement to give (see Defect # 6, Expanded)

O.R. (Release on Own Recognizance - no cash bail required) (see Feb 7, 2003 Culver
    City Chronology on the Camera Towns page)
Old tickets, re-opening (see Re-opening, in this Index)
Operators (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Orange light (see Yellow light, in this Index)
Ordinance, muni or county (not CVC), used to issue moving violation tickets (see Section 9 on
    the Links page and SB 949 on the Action page)
Oropeza, Jenny, State Assemblywoman (see AB 1022 on the Action page)
Other California Towns (see the Your Ticket page)
Out-of-state drivers (see FAQ # 39, on the Links page)

PB Farradyne (see the San Diego Documents page)
PC - Peremptory Challenge (see Challenges, in this Index)
PC 1385 (see 1385, above, in this Index)
Pacific Palisades (see MRCA in this Index)
Paid tickets, re-opening (see Re-opening, in this Index)
Park, People v. (see Appeal Decisions, in this Index)
Parking tickets (see Section 10 on the Links page)
Patent for image enhancement of red light, Redflex (see Defect # 10-D, on the Home page)
Pavement markings, effect of (see Alternatives, in this Index)
Pay, how much do cities pay for camera systems? (see FAQ # 17, on the Links page)
Pay-per-ticket - prohibition of (see Subsection B. of Defect # 10 on the Home page)
Pay to Play Bribery (see FAQ # 34 on the Links page)
Payment Plans (see the Your Ticket page)
Penalty points to out-of-state drivers (see FAQ # 39, on the Links page)
Pennsylvania (see News section on the Links page)
Percentile speed (see 85th Percentile Speed, in this Index)
Peremptory Challenges (see Challenges, in this Index)
Perjury (see FAQ # 21 on the Links page, and Defect # 1 on the Home page)
Phishing Ticket (see Fake Ticket, in this Index)
Phone calls from police, creepy (see "Police Going Too Far..." on the Your Ticket page)
Photo enforcement  (umbrella term for red light cameras and speeding ticket cameras)
Photo enhancement of red light, RedFlex patent for (see Defect # 10-D, on the Home page)
Photo Grading page
Photo Radar (see Speeding Ticket Cameras, in this Index)
PhotoBlocker(tm) license plate spray (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Photos, car's position in (see FAQ # 32 on the Links page)
Photos, poor-quality copies of  (see Best Evidence, in this Index)
Photos on camera company's website, How to copy and save (see FAQ # 43 on the Links page)
Platinum Equity, LLC (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Points for out-of-state drivers (see FAQ # 39, on the Links page)
Porche, Dep., LA Sheriff, papers by:  Civilianization  Minimum Yellow  Proof of Service
Posted Speed (see the Expanded Version of Defect # 2 and Defining Approach Speed)
Posting of intersection (see Sign Requirements, in this Index)
Poway, California, City of (see the "Police Going Too Far..." section of the Your Ticket
    page, and the Camera Towns page)
PR by Industry (see the Industry PR page)
Pre-emptory Challenges (see Peremptory Challenges, in this Index)
Prevailing Wage
Pro Tem - temporary judge (see the About Your Judge box in Section 3 of the Your Ticket page)
Probable Cause, Lack of (see the 2014 Tho-- case in Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions,
   and Defect # 10 - E)
Profiling (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
Proof of Service (see Defect # 8 on the Home page)
Propositions 8, 28, and 115 (see Truth in Evidence, in this Index)
Protected license plates (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
Public hearing, requirement to conduct (see Defect # 6, Expanded)
Public notice, requirement to give 30 days before commencement of program (see Defect # 6, Expanded)
Public records, received from Culver City (see the Culver City Documents page)
Public Records Act (see CPRA, in this Index)
Public trial (see Set # 3 on the Culver City Documents page, and FAQ # 1 on the Links page)

Questionnaire (see the Action page)
Quotas (see Ticket Quotas, in this Index)

R.O. (abbreviation for "registered owner")
Radar speed surveys (see Speed Trap defense, in this Index)
Rear end accidents (see FAQ # 19 on the Links page)
Rebound (see FAQ # 6 on the Links page)
Reciprocal agreements for the exchange of violation info between states (see FAQ # 39)
Record on appeal, Motion to Augment - example (see the Franco case
    in the Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions )
Recording your trial (see Taping a trial, in this Index)
Records, getting government records (see the Getting Records/Discovery page)
Red light looks yellow on ticket (see FAQ # 20 on the Links page)
Red Light Running Crisis, Is It Intentional, The (Paper by Cong. Armey) (see the Links page)
Red time (see Late Time, in this Index)
RedFlex (see Camera Companies, in this Index, and FAQ # 37)
Reduced fine (see the Your Ticket page)
Refunds, big (see East LA and Bakersfield in this Index, and Costa Mesa and Union City on
    the Camera Towns page)
Refunds, old tickets (see Re-opening, in this Index)
Reference works (see the Links page)
Rent, monthly, for camera systems (see FAQ # 17, on the Links page)
Re-opening old cases (see Dismissal, in this Index)
Repeated (multiple) tickets in a short period of time (see FAQ # 40, on the Links page)
Reseda (see MRCA in this Index)
Reversal, old tickets (see Dismissal, in this Index)
Right to speedy trial (see FAQ # 28 on the Links page)
Right turns, enforcement on (see Defect # 9 on the Home page, FAQs # 4, 15, 27 and # 37, and the Legislation section)
Rochin v. California (see Truth in Evidence, in this Index)
Rosenberg, Aaron (see the 2013 RedFlex v. Rosenberg case, in the Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions )

SB 57, SB 466, SB 780, SB 949, SB 1300, SB 1325, SB 1800, SB 1900 (Senate bills) (see the Action page)
SWITRS - Statewide Integrated Traffic (accident) Records System,
    examples (see Set # 12 of Culver City Documents, and Set # 3 of Hawthorne Documents.)
Sacramento, City or County of  (see Sacramento Left Yellow Brief, and the Camera Towns page)
Sample citation (see Citation, sample, in this Index)
San Jose, California, City of (see Humor section on the Links page, the "Police Going Too
    Far..." section of the Your Ticket page, and the Camera Towns page)
Santa Monica Mountains (see MRCA in this Index)
Save photos from camera company's website, How to (see FAQ # 43 on the Links page)
Second Offender traffic school (see Traffic School, in this Index)
Service of ticket (see Defect # 8 on the Home page)
Settled Statement, sample (see the Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions.)
Sheriff - ticket issued by (see Disambiguation, near the bottom of the Camera Towns page)
Sign, Blank Out (see Set # 6 on the Metro Docs page and Sign Requirements, in this Index)
Sign requirements (see Defect # 4 on the Home page, FAQ # 27, and Sign Requirements)
Signal lamp color (see FAQ # 20 on the Links page)
Signal timing chart, example (see the Costa Mesa section on the Camera Towns page)
Simitian, Joseph, former California State Senator (see SB 1303 of 2012 on the ActionLegis page)
Sirens behind you (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
Smart phone, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Snitch tickets (see Fake Tickets, in this Index)
Speed cameras (see Speeding Ticket Cameras, in this Index)
Speed ("V") shown on the first and second photos:  Why is it the same figure?  (see FAQ # 37, on the Links page)
Speed Trap defense (see FAQ # 24 on the Links page, and the Speeding Ticket section at the bottom of the Links page)
Speeding ticket (or warning) cameras (see SB 466, SB 1300 and SB 1325 on the Action page, the Humor
    section and the Speeding Ticket section on the Links page, and the MRCA, San Jose and Los Angeles
    sections on the Camera Towns page)
Speeding ticket issued under local ordinance not CVC (see Section 9 on the Links page and SB 949 on the Action page)
Speeding ticket websites (see the bottom of the Links page)
Speedy trial, the right to (see FAQ # 28 on the Links page)
Sprays to cover license plate (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Stay of Sentence - to preserve traffic school during appeal (see the Appeal section of the Your Ticket page)
Steady red light - an element of the crime (see Defect # 7 on the Home page)
Stenographer (see Taping a Trial, in this Index)
Stop sign ticket issued under local ordinance not CVC (see Section 9 on the Links page and SB 949 on the Action page)
Stop sign photo enforcement (see MRCA in this Index)
Stopped, but a couple feet too late (See FAQ # 30, on the Links page)
Stopping distances (see Defect # 9 on the Home page, and Stopping Distance Chart)
Street markings, effect of (see Alternatives, in this Index)
Studies of accidents (see FAQ # 19, on the Links page, and the Industry PR page)
Subpoenas (see the Getting Records page)
Suppliers of cameras (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Surveys, radar speed (see Speed Trap defense, in this Index)
Suspended sentence, definition (see the small Often-Misunderstood Courthouse Terminology box
    in the Handling Your Ticket section on the Your Ticket page)
SWITRS - Statewide Integrated Traffic (accident) Records System, examples (see Set # 12
    of Culver City Documents, and Set # 3 of Hawthorne Documents.)

TBD, or TDN (see Trial by Declaration in this Index)
TS (see Traffic School, in this Index)
Taping a trial (see Taping Your Trial)
Taxi cab (see Company Car, in this Index)
Tailgaters (see Necessity Defense, in this Index)
Temescal Canyon (see MRCA in this Index)
Texas cameras (see the Links page)
Threshold speed (see FAQ # 27 on the Links page)
Tickets (see the Your Ticket page)
Ticket quotas (see Defect # 9 on the Home page)
Ticket, sample (see Citation, sample, in this Index)
Ticket incomplete (see Defect # 8 on the Home page)
Time into red (see Late Time, in this Index)
Time payment plans (see Payment Plans, in this Index)
Timing chart (see Signal timing chart, in this Index)
TomTom, to warn of camera locations (see FAQ # 11 on the Links page)
Topanga (see MRCA in this Index)
Traffic accident records, getting - (see SWITRS, in this Index)
Traffic School, preserving it during appeal (see the Appeal section of the Your Ticket page)
Traffic School, traffic school after losing at trial (see the Editorial box on the Links page)
Traffic School - alternatives if ineligible (see the Alternatives
    box, in the Handling Your Ticket section of the Your Ticket page)
Traffic School - alternatives for those having Commercial Drivers License (see the Alternatives
    box, in the Handling Your Ticket section of the Your Ticket page)
Traffic Violation Notice (see the "Police Going Too Far..." section of the Your Ticket page)
Transfer to County Seat (see Change of Venue, in this Index)
Transcripts (see Trial Transcripts - samples, and Taping  a Trial, both in this Index)
Transol (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Trial, definition (see FAQ # 23 on the Links page)
Trial, Speedy, the right to (see FAQ # 28 on the Links page)
Trial by Declaration, Trial de Novo (see the Your Ticket page)
Trial Transcript, of your trial (see Taping a trial, in this Index)
Trial Transcripts - samples (see Library of Transcripts, Briefs, and Court Decisions)
Trigger speed (see FAQ # 27 on the Links page)
Truth in Evidence
Two or more tickets in a short period of time (see FAQ # 40, on the Links page)

Un-listed license plates (see FAQ # 22 on the Links page)
Uniform Guidelines and Procedures, City's (part of Discovery, see
    the Getting Records page, and Defect # 10 on the Home page.  For Federal guidelines,
    see Guidelines, federal, in this Index)
Unintentional running (see FAQ # 6 on the Links page)
Union City, California, City of (see the "Police Going Too Far..." section of the Your Ticket
    page, and the Camera Towns page)
Unpublished Cases (see Appeals Decisions, in this Index)

V (when found in data box on ticket, stands for speed of the car.  See also FAQ # 37)
Vendors (see Camera Companies, in this Index)
Venue, Change of (see Change of Venue, in this Index)
Violation info - reciprocal agreements for interstate exchange (see FAQ # 39)
Visiting drivers (see FAQ # 39, on the Links page)

Wage, Prevailing
Waiver, accepting a Pro Tem judge (see the About Your Judge box in Section 3 of the Your Ticket page)
Warning Period, 30-day, lack of (see Defect # 6 on the Home page)
Warning Tickets (see Defect # 6 on the Home page)
Warning Sign Requirements (see Sign Requirements, in this Index)
Washington DC (see News section on the Links page)
Washington State cameras (see the Links page)
Webb, Gary (see Bohl)
Webmaster's email address (see bottom of the Action page)
WeHo (see City of West Hollywood, on the Camera Towns page)
West Hollywood gridlock ticket, by mail (see the West Hollywood Docs page)
West LA/Westwood (see either the City of Los Angeles, or Los Angeles County, on the Camera Towns page)
What's Really New or Hot? (see the Home page)
Whittier / Atlantic intersection (see the East LA section on the Camera Towns page)
Witnesses, the right to confront (See Defect # 10 - D on the Home page)
Wozniak, People vs. (see Traffic School, in this Index)

Xerox/ACS/Conduent  (see Camera Companies, in this Index)

Yellow Change Intervals, table of  (see Expanded version of Defect # 2)
Yellows, longer, effect of (see FAQ # 6 on the Links page)
Yellows, deliberate shortening, incidents of (see FAQ # 6, on the Links page)
Yellow light looks red on ticket, or vice-versa (see FAQ # 20 on the Links page)
Yellow light too short (see Expanded version of Defect # 2)
Yellow, techniques to measure length (see yellow-shaded box in Other California Towns Step 2
    section on the Your Ticket page)
Your Ticket page


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